Herpes Simplex Type 1 and 2

Herpes simplex is a common type of skin infection, caused by a virus. There are two different types of herpes simplex infections; herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2, classified according to the causative virus – herpes simples virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common one, occuring on the More »

Diagnosis of Pregnancy

The medical diagnosis of a pregnancy marks a very important milestone in a woman’s life. It brings a sense of responsibility and a feeling of a fulfillment, especially if the the pregnancy was planned. On the other hand, if the pregnancy was not expected or planned, it would mark a period of intense stress and More »

What Affects Body Temperature and Other Vital Signs

Monitoring and maintaining vital signs within a normal range is important, since constant abnormal readings may be an early indicator that something else might be going on inside your body. While changes in vital signs is expected during normal daily activities and diurnal variations, others factors or medical conditions may be responsible for such changes. Knowing some of these factors may More »

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH refers to a non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland. The cells inside the prostate gland increases in number leading to an enlarged prostate. As the prostate gland enlarges, it extends upwards towards the bladder hence obstructing the outflow of the urine. Eventually, it may lead to other medical conditions. More »


10 Best Fitness Wristband For iphone

10 Best Fitness Wristband For iphone

Health is one of the most important aspects in our lives since good health enables us to function properly and to achieve whatever goals we might have. More and more people are becoming aware of their health and want to live as healthy as possible.

One way to do this is by using wristbands to measure calories, steps, heart rate, among other things. In this article, we look at the 10 Best Fitness Wristband For iphone.

1. Fitbit Charge HR Wireless Activity Wristband is a high performance wristband. It automatically measures your heart rate throughout the whole day without you having to use a chest strap. It also tracks your activity, more specifically it will measure the amount of steps you take, the distance, calories and active minutes.

In addition, it tracks your sleep and sets an alarm. You can record your exercises and then view them in details on your smartphone or computer. It also shows caller ID when your phone is closed and shows you what time it is.

2. Polar M400 GPS Sports Watch and Activity Tracker is compact and lightweight and therefore, great for wearing the whole day. It comes with a training guide and if you pair the watch with the H7 heart rate sensor, the watch will tell you when you are in the perfect heart rate zone and when you are training at the right intensity.

It also comes with an integrated GPS to tracks your distance, speed and altitude and tells you when you have set a new record. M400 tracks your sleep, steps and calories and notifies you when you have been inactive for a long period of time and how to achieve your daily goal.

The other feature for this watch is the running index that counts your running score index. However, for this work, you need the H7 heart rate sensor.

3.  Vidonn X5 Bluetooth 4.0 Smart Wristband Sport Sleep Tracking Band Monitor has an OLED screen and can record your activity and tracks your sleep throughout the day. It has a built-in USB 2.0. So, you can easily charge it through your computer. In addition, it automatically syncs the data to your smartphone with the help of the Bluetooth.

4. Fitbit One Wireless Activity Plus Sleep Tracker tracks your calories, steps and distance. It also monitors your sleep to see how long and how well you sleep. It sets a silent alarm to wake you up in the morning and allows you to set your goals and earn badges. You can connect this wristband to your iPhone via Bluetooth.

5. Xiaomi Lightweight IP67 Smart Wireless Bluetooth 4.0 Healthy Sports Miband Bracelet. To be able to use this bracelet, you are required to download Mi Band app. Xiaomi Lightweight IP67 Smart Wireless Bluetooth 4.0 Healthy Sports Miband Bracelet records your daily activity, more specifically it calculates the distance and the burned calories.

It also tracks your sleep, provides health advice and it reminds you of your phone calls. You can easily sync the data to your iPhone with the help of Bluetooth.

6. Fitbit Charge Wireless Activity Wristband tracks your steps, distance, burned calories, active minutes and floors climbed. It has an OLED display and it shows real-time data and caller ID. It also monitors your sleep and sets a silent alarm for you. The wristband automatically syncs the data to your computer and smartphone and it can help you find the motivation you need to achieve your goals.

7. Suunto Ambit3 Peak GPS Sapphire Heart Rate Monitor is well designed and very comfortable to wear. It connects to your smartphone via the Suunto Movescount app, which guides you through your workout by creating a 3D map of your journey.  It also allows you to personalize the watch, keeps track of time and GPS and receives smartphone updates.

8. Wahoo TICKR Heart Rate Monitor connects to your phone via Bluetooth. It tracks your heart rate in order to optimize your workout and it also tracks how many calories you have burned. It can be connected to popular apps, for example Endomondo and RunKeeper.

9. Scosche Rhythm + Heart Rate Monitor keeps track of your heart rate, burned calories, steps, music, distance, pace and much more. It uses an app to manage your metrics and allow you to use any app that you might prefer. It also measures blood flow and body movement to provide the most accurate data.

10. Garmin Forerunner 220 comes with an in-built GPS to track your workouts tracks pace, distance, heart rate and automatically uploads data to Garmin Connect mobile app in order for you to get motivation to keep you going through your workouts.

It also allow you to set alerts for heart rate, pace and distance intervals, which helps you stay in the desired range. It also tells you when you have reached your new record.


Having a wristband to monitors your heart rate, distance, pace and calories consumed can be very helpful not only when trying to lose weight but also when trying to stay healthy. These watches come equipped with all sorts of apps in order to give you alerts to stay in the desired range and to optimize your workout.

One best thing is that, most of them can be connected to your iphone or computer hence making it easier for you to be able to track your results. There are many wristbands on the market today but in order for you to get the best results, you need to get the best. This is the main reason why we have listed some of the highly rated top 10 Best Fitness Wristband For iphone so as to make it easier for you.

Best Inexpensive Eye Creams in 2015

Best Inexpensive Eye Creams in 2015

An eye cream should be an essential part of any daily make up routine for every woman. This is because, the area under the eye is considered very delicate and if proper care is not taken to protect the area, it may end up looking wrinkled and puffy.

Nowadays, there are different kinds of good eye creams available on the market and most of them are very affordable.

In this article, we look at the top selling best inexpensive eye creams in 2015. With that in mind here are the top selling creams;

1. NuNutrients Cucumber Eye Cream   – This soothing eye cream contains cucumber extract for cooling your skin to a nice moisturizing effect. It also contains Hyaluronic acid and soluble collagen for firming the skin and to reduce the appearance of fine wrinkles and dark circles. The best part is that, anyone can use it without problem as it is safe for different skin types.

2. Poppy Austin  – A 100% organic eye and face cream that is enriched with green tea, jojoba extract, and vitamin C to target the dark bags under the eyes along with fine lines and crows feet.

This powerful antioxidant eye cream can also be used as a facial cream to protect your skin from harmful free radicals, leaving you with a fresh and youthful glow.

3. Best Eye Cream by Michelle  – The name says it all, it is one of the best and highly rated eye cream on the market today. Best Eye Cream is made from Hyaluronic acid, Vitamin C, and Retinol to do away with saggy skin, heavy bags, dark circles, and puffiness. This amazing cream works by moisturizing the skin while repairing deep tissue damage.

4. Sano Naturals Vitamin C Serum  – This is an organically derived serum enriched with Vitamin C to reduce puffiness and the appearance of wrinkles. It is full of antioxidants to protect your skin while repairing it. It also contains aloe to nourish and moisturize the skin.

5. Andre Lorent Crazy Beautiful  – Considered as breakthrough in eye cream technology. This incredible eye cream will visibly reduce signs of aging such as wrinkles and sagging skin under the eyes. The secret to its magic is two of it’s proven anti-wrinkle ingredients, sepi-lift and resveratrol.

6. Revitalize Eye Serum   – For a lightweight, easily absorbed eye serum look no further than Revitalize. This breakthrough formula delivers noticeable results in diminishing fine lines and helps to plump and firm for an anti-aging effect that reduces puffiness.

7. Cheeva Eyes of Beauty  – This antioxidant rich cream targets dark circles and puffiness from the inside out. It repairs deep tissue damage while ridding the skin of damaging free radicals. This visibly reduces aging by repairing the puffy skin that surrounds the eyes.

8. Azure Naturals Ultimate Peptide   -The secret ingredient in Ultimate Peptide is the cucumber extract which delivers the ultimate in moisturizing while eliminating signs of aging such as puffiness or wrinkles.

9. Atal Velvet Eye Serum – An absorbent and non greasy serum that has been proven to firm and hydrate skin under the eyes by reducing the excess fluid and breaking down the fatty deposits that causes puffiness.

10. Belitae Organics Advanced Eye Treatment   – This 100% natural and vegan eye cream is delicate enough on most types of skin and strong enough to treat every major eye concern. It’s special formula can als be used on your entire face to tackle wrinkles.

Now that you have our top best inexpensive eye Creams in 2015,  be sure to pick your favorite to give your eyes and face a radiant, healthful glow.

Addict Him to You Review – Mirabelle Summers System


Addict Him is a blueprint and a relationship system created by Mirabelle Summers, a relationship expert who become one after going through a painful breakup with her boyfriend. In the sales video, Mirabelle Summers talks about how her two years boyfriend woke up one night and revealed he was seeing someone else and was leaving him for the other woman.

What is Addict Him System?

Addict Him is a system created from a real life experience where Mirabelle Summers shares how she discovered what really men want using some of her male friends. After going through a breakup, Mirabelle Summers met all her male friend, shared her story and secretly recorded every word they said.

She later used whatever secrets she had learned to create Addict Him to You, which is powerful and a working system for every woman who may be going through the same problem.

Basically, the  Addict Him system is a detailed e-course that details every step that you need to do to empower yourself, change the course of your relationship and apply the secrets learned to transform your love life to a magical relationship that every woman would wish to have.

What Can You Expect From Addict Him System?

Some of the key secrets that you can expect to learn from the Addict Him system include;
  • The rarest secrets that most woman will never know about their men.
  • The secret to getting any man commit wholeheartedly to you. You basically learn how a man minds operate and use it to your advantage.
  • How to understand how men really think and work.
  • Why your man still have secrets doubts about you and why he is lying about those doubts.
  • The secrets of what make a man commit or pull away at the last minute.
  • Why he lies and cheats on you.
  • The things men says about you when you are not around.
  • How men think and work.
  • You will be able to unlock a common trend in men that you are not even aware of.
  • What is that one thing that make a man desperate to be with another woman.
  • Learn what would be your role in the breakup.
  • Learn how to make your man commit fully to the relationship.
  • How to know what your man secretly want and needs from you.
  • How to become a man’s magnet for his love.
  • How to get your man open up to you.
  • How to make him fully commit and stop pushing you away.
  • How to bring back your man and make him love you like what he did when you initially started the relationship.
  • Why a man would rather work to be with you rather than you work to be with him and much more.

Other Key Teachings from Addict Him System

The Light Bulb Principle that will allow you to know the biggest secret your man is holding from you, including what make up his inner mind and how to prove to him that you understand how he works and thinks.
The 3 subtle signs that men give that are an emotional proof that you are the one for him. How to act on those 3 signs.
  • Learn how to stop driving your man away from you when you think you are showing him love.
  • What he really means when he get angry with you.
  • How to turn off his anger quickly and smoothly so as to dissolve the tension.
  • Learn how to re-ignite or ignite any man’s desire.
Plus inside relationship rare tips that you have never heard, including:
  • The water fall effect –  that will reveal all the hidden feelings that men usually go through.
  • The 4 key need of every man that are not been met right now. One thing that a woman does that completely turn a man off. How to turn around and make your man love you completely.
  • Easy way to spark the heat and passion in your relationship. The top 5 things that you might be doing without realizing that you are turning your man off.
Addict Him Other Bonuses
  • Reflective attractive bonus guide
  • Human lie detector bonus
  • The cheating neutralizer – learn how to make your man never cheat again on you. Learn how to address the deep that make a man cheat.

Is Addict Him By Mirabelle Summers, Legit or Scam?

If you have been experiencing problems with men, you get dumped by every man or you just cannot get the right kind of man to love you. I would highly recommend you to go through the sale video or get yourself a copy of Addict Him to You.

Learn the reason why men behave they way they do, what they want and what you can really do to win a man’s heart fully. Addict Him to You is an interesting and a powerful system that can really work on anyone who is serious about getting the right man.

You are not only learning how to make a man love you but you also learn to how to handle stress and what you need to do on your part. For more tips check out this video.

What is Pancreatitis

PancreasPancreatitis is the inflammation of a pancreas. A pancreas is a important organ found deep inside behind the stomach and attached by ducts to both small intestines and gall bladder.

Its primary purpose it to secrete enzymes that help in digestion and to produce insulin that regulate the blood glucose levels.

Although it is not well known the mechanism that leads to pancreatitis. However, it is believed that pancreatitis can develop from any condition that lead to obstruction of the pancreas, pancreatic duct, cystic duct and common bile duct.

Once there is an obstruction, the pancreatic enzyme get trapped inside the pancreas and together with the bile, they initiate an inflammation process, attacking the pancreas (auto-digestion).

Risk Factors of Pancreatitis

  • Penetrating peptic ulcers
  • Alcoholism
  • Use of contraceptive pills
  • Neurological problems
  • Kidney failure
  • People who had previous history of kidney transplant.
  • Abdominal defects
  • Biliary disease
  • High cholesterol
  • Thyroid problem
  • Surgical injuries or trauma

Types of Pancreatitis

There are two different types of pancreatitis: Acute and Chronic

Acute Pancreatitis

Acute Pancreatitis occurs suddenly and can range from mild to several, fatal inflammation that does not respond to any treatment. In mild cases, the inflammation is usually confined within the pancreas and characterized by edema with minimal organ dysfunction.

The inflammation usually heals within 6 months and rarely causes any other complication.

However, severe inflammation can lead to bleeding (pancreatic enzymes damage the local blood vessels), cysts formation and circulatory problems, leading to kidney failure, pulmonary problems or even shock.

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is usually diagnosed after an episode of acute pancreatitis or when 80% – 90% of pancreas has already been destroyed.

It more common in men between the ages of 40 – 45 years with history of alcoholism or women between the ages of 50 – 55 with previous history of suffering from a gallstone disease.

Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatitis

Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis may include;

1. Abdominal pain – felt at the middle area (epigastrium region), below the sternum and radiates to the back. Pain mostly occurs after eating a heavy meal, a fatty meal, drinking alcohol or when lying on the back. It is not relieved by taking antacid.

However, it may be temporary relieved by a knee-chest position (a position in which a person rests on the knees and upper part of the chest). It may also be followed by an abdominal distention.

2. Malnutrition due to poor food absorption rate (usually chronic cases)
3. Fatty stool (steartorrhea)
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Fever
6. Decreased bowel sound
7. Jaundice and itchiness
8. Diabetes due to destruction of islet and beta cells

Severe Pancreatitis

1. Bleeding leading to discoloration of the abdomen and peri-umbilical area (Cullen’s sign)
2. Hypovolemic shock

Pancreatitis Diagnosis
The diagnosis of pancreatitis is based on the presenting symptoms and presence of any known risk factor. Tests performed to diagnose pancreatitis may include;

  • Pancreatic Function Test – to measure the level of amylase and lipase. In acute cases, it is usually increased 3 times the normal amount within the first 24 hours.
  • Urinary amylase – used to measure the enzymes levels in urine.
  • Blood test – increased white blood cells due to infection.
  • X-ray to study the abdomen and chest.
  • Ultrasound to produce images of the pancreas.
  • CT scans to produce images of the damaged pancreas part.
  • ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) used to rule out pancreatitis caused by gallstone.

Pancreatitis Treatment

Pancreatitis treatment is directed towards preventing possible complications and relieving symptoms. Acute pancreatitis is usually treated with intravenous fluid and medications to relieve pain.

In some cases, it may require the patient to be put under intensive care unit for close monitoring and to prevent development of serious complication.

Respiratory care and monitoring is also maintained to prevent possible hypoxemia (low oxygen levels inside the blood). Some patient may require supplemental oxygen or intubation using a mechanical ventilator.

Other way to treat pancreatitis include;

  • Biliary drainage – to drain bile and establish a pancreatic drainage.
  • Surgical intervention – to relieve pain, establish a drainage, resect or remove a necrotic (dead) part of the pancreas. A small incision about 5- 10 millimeter is usually made into the abdomen. The surgeon or the doctor is then guided by a laparoscope to produce images of the pancreas into the monitor.
  • Patients are also advised to stop alcohol consumption and other medications that can lead to acute pancreatitis. The doctor also discusses about follow-ups visits to determine whether the pancreatitis is resolving and to assess other problems that may be arising from the inflammation.

How to Prevent Pancreatitis

Though the cause of pancreatitis is different on each individual. There are various measures that you can take to minimize the risk of acquiring pancreatitis, such as;

  • Avoiding alcohol abuse
  • Eating low fat diet to prevent increase in cholesterol.
  • Use medications as directed by your doctor and avoiding over the counter medications or self medication.
  • Consult medical help as soon as possible whenever you feel unwell.
  • Follow the doctor’s advice and maintain all the follow up schedules as indicated by your physician.
  • If you cannot stop drinking alcohol, talk to your doctor or a health care provider about it.

What is Labyrinthitis?

Labyrinthitis is an inflammation or swelling of the inner ear. The most common cause of Labyrinthitis is the viruses. However, it can also occurs as a complication from a bacteria infection such as Otitis Media, when the bacteria spreads from the middle ear to the inner ear.

Labyrinthitis Causes and Risk Facts

The following are causes and risk factors that increases your chances of acquiring Labyrinthitis;
  • Infection of the middle ear (Otitis Media).
  • Mumps and rubella viral infections
  • Upper respiratory tract viral infections 
  • Herpes Varicella Zoster Virus infection (Ramsay Hunt Syndrome) – a disorder that is characterized by pain and paralysis of the facial nerves.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Allergies
  • Stress and smoking
  • Medications – Aspirin 

Labyrinthitis Symptoms

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness 
  • Vertigo – lack of balance and a sensation as if you are moving or spinning around. 
  • Ringing (tinnitus) or hearing some voices inside your ears. 
  • Temporary hearing loss that may start with one ear. 
Labyrinthitis Complications 
Possible complications associated with Labyrinthitis include; 
  • Permanent loss of hearing 
  • Head injury due to failing during a vertigo attack.
Labyrinthitis Diagnostics 
  • Physical examination and patient history – The doctor check your ears and ask you questions about the symptoms that you are experiencing. 
  • Neurological examination may also be performed to rule out other possible causes. 
  • Balance test – posturography 
  • Hearing tests – audiometry  
  • CT scan and MRI 
  • Brain function tests like electroencephalogram or EEG may also be performed. 
  • Caloric stimulation – the nerves of the inner ear are irrigated with warm or cold to access the degree of the ear damage or involvement of the brainstem.

Labyrinthitis Treatment

Treatment of Labyrinthitis involves use of antibiotics if the infection is caused by a bacteria. Labyrinthitis resulting from a viral infection is treated based on the symptoms that you are experiencing.

In some cases, Labyrinthitis does not require any treatment and usually heals by its own after a few weeks. Other medications that are used to treat other symptoms may include;

  • Medications to stop vomiting 
  • Antihistamines to treat allergies  
  • Fluid replacement to prevent dehydration 
  • Medications to relieve dizziness episodes 
Labyrinthitis Prevention

There is no way you can protect yourself from getting Labyrinthitis. However, limiting your movement, resting during the period of attacks, avoiding triggers like bright right and slowly moving from sitting to standing position may prevent your from getting injured or symptoms becoming worse.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Thyroid glands

Hypothyroidism results from hyposecretion of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) by the thyroid glands. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto, an autoimmune disorder in which the body starts attacking its own thyroid glands.

Other possible causes and risk factors of hypothyroidism are;

  • Individuals with previous history of hyperthyroidism whose thyroid glands have been removed (thyroidectomy).

  • Individuals with previous history of hyperthyroidism who have been treated with radioiodine or anti-thyroid drugs.

  • Individuals who previously suffered from neck or head cancer and underwent a radiation therapy.

  • Advancing age which can lead to atrophy of the thyroid gland.

  • Gender – more common in female aged between 30 and 60 years.

  • Medications, such as lithium and iodine compounds.

  • Lack of adequate iodine in the diet.
  • Congenital or present at the time of birth (cretinism).

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

Early signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may include;

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Weak and brittle nails
  • Dry skin
  • Numbness and tingling of the fingers
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual abnormalities – heavier menstrual flow.
  • Hoarseness

Late Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • Lower than normal body temperature and pulse rate.
  • Weight gain without increase of food intake.
  • The skin become thickened
  • Hair thinning and hair fall
  • Cold intolerance (individuals always complain of feeling cold).
  • Slowed speech
  • Increased irritability
  • Decreased taste and smell

Hypothyroidism Complications

If hypothyroidism is left untreated, it can led to very low thyroid hormones in the blood, a condition known as Myxedema Coma. Myxedema Coma may be precipitated by severe cold, opiods analgesics, sudden withdrawal of thyroid medications and an acute illness or an infection. 

Myxedema Coma Signs and Symptoms

  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Low body temperature
  • Low sodium level in the blood
  • Low blood glucose
  • Slowed breathing, leading to high level of carbondioxide in the blood.
  • Low oxygen levels in the tissue.

Other complications that can result from hypothyroidism include;

  • Heart diseases – coronary artery disease, increased cholesterol levels.
  • Heart attack – in severe cases of hypothyroidism (myxedema coma).
  • Decreased libido
  • Birth defects or giving birth to a child with defects.
  • Dementia- characterized by cognitive and personality changes.
  • Decreased breathing while asleep.
  • Respiratory muscle weakness and pleural effusion.

Hypothyroidism Diagnostic Tests

Physical Examination – The doctor palpitate the thyroid gland for size and other abnormalities. The thyroid gland may be normal, decreased or increased. Doctor also examine the nails, hair, skin and face for any abnormalities. 

Serum or Blood Tests –  to measure the blood levels of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormones), T3 and T4.

Other tests that may be performed include; measurement of cholesterol levels, CBC (complete blood count), measurements of electrolytes like sodium and kidney function tests.  

Hypothyroidism Treatment

The major goal of hypothyroidism treatment is to replace the missing thyroid hormone in order to restore back a normal metabolism state. A synthetic thyroid medication (levothyroxine) is usually prescribed, based on the level of TSH hormone in the blood.

Your doctor will prescribe a specific dose and your TSH levels will be monitored, regularly until when the blood hormones levels will go back to normal. Once the hormone levels have stabilized, you will still continue taking your medications as prescribed by your doctor.

However, your doctor will now schedule for a check up every six months or every after one year. Most patients suffering from hypothyroidism will require a lifetime treatment.

Hypothyroidism Prevention

There is no known ways to prevent hypothyroidism. However, there are several measures that you can take to protect your child and to avoid developing complications;

  • Make sure your newborn is screened for congenital hypothyroidism after birth.

  • Take your thyroid medications as prescribed by your doctor.

  • Do not stop taking your thyroid medication even if you are feeling well.

  • If you are taking any other medications, inform your doctor.

  • Seek your doctor’s help if you are thinking of changing your thyroid medication brand.

  • Consult your doctor before taking any supplements like iron, multivitamins, calcium etc.

  • Keep yourself warm if you feel cold.

  • Avoid exposing yourself to cold weather until your thyroid hormone levels have stabilized.

  • Avoid situation that can lead to infection.

  • Talk to your dietitian about the right diet that will help you to lose weight and prevent constipation.

  • Seek urgent medical help if you are experiencing signs and symptoms of thyroid medication overdose, such as, feeling your heart beating (palpitation), nervousness, sweating, weight loss, restlessness. If thyroid symptoms are becoming worse or your condition is not improving. If you are experiencing chest pain, difficulty breathing or dizziness.

What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid gland disorder resulting from over secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). Thyroid glands are the butterfly shaped glands that are located on the front lower neck.

Their main function is to produce hormones that play an important role in maintaining the overall function of the body, such as energy level, body warmth, muscles and other important functions. 

Hyperthyroidism result from any condition that affects the thyroid gland, leading to over production of T4 hormones, such as a thyroid tumor, graves disease (an autoimmune disorder where the body keep on producing more thyroid hormones.

The level of thyroid hormone is usually regulated by another hormone known as TSH (thyroid stimulating hormones) that is produced by pituitary glands. When there is an increased amount of T4 hormones in the blood, the pituitary gland try to compensate by decreasing the amount of TSH it produces. 

Hyperthyroidism Signs and Symptoms

  • Losing weight despite having a good appetite.
  • Increasing blood pressure
  • Irritability
  • Increased heat intolerance
  • Enlarged thyroid glands (goiter)
  • Thinning of the hair
  • Increased pulse rate
  • Tremors and nervousness
  • Bulging eyes (exophthalmos) – most common in graves disease.

If hyperthyroidism is not controlled, it can leads to a thyroid storm. A thyroid storm can be triggered by several factors such as, a surgical procedure, during intense period of stress, radioactive therapy, heart attack or overdose of thyroid synthetic hormones.

Thyroid Storm Signs and Symptoms

  • Increased systolic blood pressure (systolic pressure).

  • Increased pulse rate

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Muscle weakness

Hyperthyroidism Diagnostic Tests

The following are different tests that can be used to diagnose hyperthyroidism:

TSH Serum Test

Serum measurement of TSH, T3 and T4 – expected findings – increased T3 and T4, decreased TSH. Individuals with milder cases of hyperthyroidism may have increased level of T3, normal T4 and decreased TSH. For subclinical cases of hyperthyroidism, they may have normal T3 and T4 but decreased TSH.

Antibody tests – Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI).

Autoantibody Titers Tests

Graves disease – expected findings – significantly increased anti-TPO and TSI.  Toxic multi-nodular enlargement (goiter) and Toxic Adenoma (thyroid benign tumor) – Anti-TPO may be absent or low. Individuals with active hyperthyroidism may also have mild levels of anti-TPO.

Scintigraphy – a thyroid test that involves taking an oral solution to produces structural images of the thyroid gland in order to determine the size, function and other thyroid gland abnormalities.

Hyperthyroidism Treatment and Management

The management of hyperthyroidism is directed towards reducing the hyperactivity of the thyroid glands in order to relieve various symptoms. Medical management may include;

Antithyroid Medications – used for a long time management of hyperthyroidism in children, pregnant women and adults waiting for a radioactive treatment.

Medications to control increased pulse rate (tachycardia) and to decrease palpitation, such as propranolol and beta blockers.

Radioactive Iodine Treatment – hyperthyroidism treatment of choice for adults and non pregnant women.  Radioactive iodine works by destroying the thyroid gland. However, it is not given to individuals with severe cases of ophthalmopathy. Surgery may performed for severe cases of ophthalmopathy (orbital decompression). Other way to manage ophthalmopathy is through  radiation therapy.

Removal of thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) – for severe cases of hyperthyroidism that do not respond to other therapies.

Other non pharmaceutical management of hyperthyroidism include;

  • Increasing fluid intake to prevent dehydration.

  • Monitoring of the vital signs.

  • Diet high in calories and protein.

  • Frequent small meals.

  • Providing a cool, quiet environment for the patient. 

What is Hydramnios or Polyhydramnios?

Excessive Amniotic Fluid

Hydramnios also known as Polyhydramnios is condition where there is excessive amount of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that cushions and protect the baby while in the mother’s womb.

In normal pregnancy, amniotic fluid is usually between 500 mL to 1000 mL at the term. In hydramnios, the amniotic fluid increases to more than 2,000 mL.

Causes of Hydramnios

Amniotic fluid is consistently produced by cells found on the amniotic membrane. Most of it is then swallowed by the baby while the others is absorbed into the fetus blood stream and across the placenta.

In hydramnios, it is believed that the fetus does not swallow or absorb the required amount of amniotic fluid, leading to excessive amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus. Hydramnios has also been linked to excessive production of urine by the fetus of diabetic mothers.

Signs and Symptoms of Hydramnios

  • Rapid enlargement of the abdomen.
  • The doctor may not be able to listen to the heart of the fetus due to increased amount of fluid sorrounding the fetus.
  • Difficult breathing due to expanding uterus that presses on the diaphragm.
  • Swelling or abdominal bloating.
  • Increased weight gain.
  • Abdominal pain due to stretching caused by the increasing belly.
  • Hemorroids and lower extremities varicosities due to poor venous circulation from the extreme pressure.

Hydramnios Complications

Mild case of hydramnios does not cause much problem or discomfort and it may settles by its own after sometimes. However, severe cases of hydramnios need urgent medical attention since it may be due to a fetal brain defect or an intestinal obstruction. Other complications that may result from hydramnios include;

  • Fetal malpresentation – additional fluid makes it easy for the baby to move around.
  • Premature rupture of the membrane due to increased pressure.
  • Infection
  • Cord prolapse
  • Preterm birth
Hydramnios Treatment and Management
In severe cases, you may need to be admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. The doctor may put you under bed rest to help in improving circulation and to minimize cervical pressure which can lead to a pre term birth.

  • Your health care provider assess your vital signs and examine your legs for swellings.
  • If preterm labor has already began, you may be given medication to halt it.
  • Your doctor may remove some amniotic fluid but this is only a temporary relieve since amniotic fluid is consistently produced.
  • After your baby is born, he or she is evaluated for possible problems which may have caused hydramnios.

Psoriasis Disease Overview

Psoriasis is one of the most common type of skin disorder, affecting almost 2% of the population. The cause of psoriasis is unknown but it is believed to have a hereditary connection. Current studies suggest psoriasis as an autoimmune disorder, where the immune system attacks its own body cells.

In normal healthy skin, cells are produced every after 26 to 28 days.  In psoriasis the skin cells are produced at a very fast rate, usually within 3 to 4 days.

When this happens, the newly formed cells moves faster to the skin surface as the dead cells build up on the skin surface forming up flaky scales. This rapid proliferation process affects the whole process of skin layer formation. 

Psoriasis Risk Factors

The following are some of the risks factors that can worsen the condition or trigger an onset of an attack; 

  • Emotional stress and anxiety
  • Hormonal changes
  • Very dry skin
  • Skin trauma or injuries
  • Some medications, such as some anti-hypertensive drugs and anti-malaria medications.
  • Exposure to excessive sunlight
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • People with weakened immunity, such as AIDs patients.

Psoriasis Symptoms

Psoriasis symptoms may disappear for sometimes to re-appear once again later on in life. The main symptom are lesions that appear red, flaky patches covered with scales. 

If the scales are scrapped, they expose a dark red skin that tend to bleed. Psoriasis lesions are commonly found on the scalp, elbows, lower back, knees and on the genitals.

In about a quarter of the patients suffering from psoriasis, discoloration, crumbling of the nail edges and separation of the nails plate is also present.

Other symptoms may include, palms and soles lesions, (palmar pustular psoriasis) genital sores in males and dandruff on the scalp.

Psoriasis Complications

Possible complications associated with psoriasis include;

  • Arthritis of multiple joints occurs in about 5% of individuals suffering from psoriasis.

  • Erythrodermic psoriasis – the infection spread to the whole body surface.

Psoriasis Diagnostics Tests

The confirmation of psoriasis diagnosis is usually made by looking at the presenting symptoms, the plaque-type skin lesions. The doctor or the nurse inspects your skin for the lesions. Your family history is also taken to identify possible hereditary connections.

Other tests that may be performed include; a biopsy test, where a sample of the affected tissue is taken for further analysis.

Psoriasis Treatment and Management

There is no cure of psoriasis and any treatment given is directed towards slowing down the rapid growth of the skin cells and to help in healing the skin lesions. The following are the different types of treatments that are used to manage psoriasis;

Topical Agents – Topical medications are used to slow down the rapid growth of the skins cells, without affecting other tissues. 

They come in different forms and may include; lotions, pastes, ointment, creams or shampoos. In some cases, topical steroids may also be prescribed to minimize the inflammatory process.

Intralesional Medications – These are steroid medications that are directly injected into the skin psoriasis patches that do not react to other treatment. Such as Aristocort, Kenalog-10 and Trymex.

Systemic Medications – Only used in treating severe cases of psoriasis that do not respond to other treatment due to their serious withdrawal effects (side effects). 

Photochemotherapy – a process where psoralen medications and ultraviolet light are combined in treating psoriasis. In photochemotherapy, you receive photosensitizing medication and at the same time, you get exposed to the ultraviolet light.

The therapy is believed to work by slowing down the whole process of rapid reproduction of the skin cells.

Psoriasis Prevention

There is no known way to prevent yourself from acquiring psoriasis. However, there are a few things that you can do to protect your skin or to prevent triggering an onset; 

  • Daily baths using oils, aveeno oilated oatmeal or a coal tar preparation, together with a soft brush may help in removing the scales.

  • Apply any topical medication as prescribed to help in softening the thickened skin.

  • Avoid scrubbing your skin too hard to avoid irritating it.

  • Avoid situations or stress that can trigger an attack.

  • Maintain a regular skin care routine.

  • Keep your skin clean and well moisturized.

  • Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight.

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is not a specific kidney disease but a disorder that results into various symptoms. It can result from any disorder or disease that affects kidney glomeruli; the small blood vessels found at the end of the kidneys tubules that filter waste products from the blood.

When the glomeruli capillary membrane is damaged it allows excessive protein to leave the body, leading to decreased protein (albumin) inside the blood.

Albumin plays an important role in maintaining fluid balance inside the body. Nephrotic syndrome is more common in children but it also occurs in adult.

Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome

Any disease or condition that destroys or damages the glomerular capillary membrane. Such as;

Chronic glomerulonephritis – a long term disease of the kidney that results into inflammation of kidney glomeruli.

Other conditions that can lead to Nephrotic Syndrome are; Diabetes Mellitus, Amyloidosis of the kidneys (disease in which abnormal protein known amyloid accumulates in body kidneys), Lupus Erythematous, Multiple Myeloma and certain medications. 

Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome 

  • Edema – a major symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome. The edema may occurs around the eyes (peri-orbital edema), sacrum, ankles, hands and on the abdomen (ascites).
  • Irritability
  • Headache and malaise
  • Foamy urine due to excessive protein.
  • Weight gain due to excessive fluid inside the body.


Possible complications associated with Nephrotic Syndrome include;

  • Obstruction of the renal vein by a clot (thromboembolism) – Excessive loss of protein can lead to loss of important proteins that help in clotting.
  • Pulmonary embolism – a clot may move from the vein and travel through the blood to the lungs.
  • Acute renal failure due to decreased blood flowing into the kidneys.

  • Worsening of atherosclerosis – due to increased release of cholesterol in the blood by the liver.

  • Weight loss and malnutrition due to excessive loss of protein. It may be masked by ascites (body swellings).

  • Increased risk of infection – People with Nephrotic syndrome are more prone to getting infections than healthy people.

Nephrotic Syndrome Diagnostics Tests

  • Urinalysis – Protein (albumin) of more than 3.5g/day is the hallmark of diagnosing Nephrotic Syndrome. Other urine findings include; increased white blood cells, increased epithelial casts and granular.

  • Needle biopsy – a sample tissue of the kidney is removed by use of a small needle for further analysis.

  • Protein electrophoresis and immuno-electrophoresis – tests to categorize the type of protein found on the urine.

  • Blood tests may also be performed to measure the amount of albumin in the blood.

Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment and Management

Treatment of Nephrotic syndrome is directed towards preserving the renal functions and preventing other possible complications. Treatment involves, treating of the underlying conditions, such as hypertension.

Medications used in treating Nephrotic Syndrome include;

  • Diuretics – usually given to individuals with severe edema.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, together with a loop diuretics to reduce blood pressure and amount of protein released in the urine. This kind of treatment is not given for severe cases of edema, since it usually takes between 4 to 6 weeks to be effective.

  • Antineoplastic agents – drugs that are used to inhibit and prevent the development of cancer.

  • Corticosteroids – usually used for kidney inflammation diseases, such as membranous nephropathy or other diseases that are hard to treat or to treat relapses.

  • Other management involves diet modification, such as low sodium diet with liberal potassium for individuals with normal potassium.