Herpes Simplex Type 1 and 2

Herpes simplex is a common type of skin infection, caused by a virus. There are two different types of herpes simplex infections; herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2, classified according to the causative virus – herpes simples virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Herpes simplex type 1 is the most common one, occuring on the More »

Diagnosis of Pregnancy

The medical diagnosis of a pregnancy marks a very important milestone in a woman’s life. It brings a sense of responsibility and a feeling of a fulfillment, especially if the the pregnancy was planned. On the other hand, if the pregnancy was not expected or planned, it would mark a period of intense stress and More »

What Affects Body Temperature and Other Vital Signs

Monitoring and maintaining vital signs within a normal range is important, since constant abnormal readings may be an early indicator that something else might be going on inside your body. While changes in vital signs is expected during normal daily activities and diurnal variations, others factors or medical conditions may be responsible for such changes. Knowing some of these factors may More »

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH refers to a non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland. The cells inside the prostate gland increases in number leading to an enlarged prostate. As the prostate gland enlarges, it extends upwards towards the bladder hence obstructing the outflow of the urine. Eventually, it may lead to other medical conditions. More »


Addict Him to You Review – Mirabelle Summers System


Addict Him is a blueprint and a relationship system created by Mirabelle Summers, a relationship expert who become one after going through a painful breakup with her boyfriend. In the sales video, Mirabelle Summers talks about how her two years boyfriend woke up one night and revealed he was seeing someone else and was leaving him for the other woman.

What is Addict Him System?

Addict Him is a system created from a real life experience where Mirabelle Summers shares how she discovered what really men want using some of her male friends. After going through a breakup, Mirabelle Summers met all her male friend, shared her story and secretly recorded every word they said.

She later used whatever secrets she had learned to create Addict Him to You, which is powerful and a working system for every woman who may be going through the same problem.

Basically, the  Addict Him system is a detailed e-course that details every step that you need to do to empower yourself, change the course of your relationship and apply the secrets learned to transform your love life to a magical relationship that every woman would wish to have.

What Can You Expect From Addict Him System?

Some of the key secrets that you can expect to learn from the Addict Him system include;
  • The rarest secrets that most woman will never know about their men.
  • The secret to getting any man commit wholeheartedly to you. You basically learn how a man minds operate and use it to your advantage.
  • How to understand how men really think and work.
  • Why your man still have secrets doubts about you and why he is lying about those doubts.
  • The secrets of what make a man commit or pull away at the last minute.
  • Why he lies and cheats on you.
  • The things men says about you when you are not around.
  • How men think and work.
  • You will be able to unlock a common trend in men that you are not even aware of.
  • What is that one thing that make a man desperate to be with another woman.
  • Learn what would be your role in the breakup.
  • Learn how to make your man commit fully to the relationship.
  • How to know what your man secretly want and needs from you.
  • How to become a man’s magnet for his love.
  • How to get your man open up to you.
  • How to make him fully commit and stop pushing you away.
  • How to bring back your man and make him love you like what he did when you initially started the relationship.
  • Why a man would rather work to be with you rather than you work to be with him and much more.

Other Key Teachings from Addict Him System

The Light Bulb Principle that will allow you to know the biggest secret your man is holding from you, including what make up his inner mind and how to prove to him that you understand how he works and thinks.
The 3 subtle signs that men give that are an emotional proof that you are the one for him. How to act on those 3 signs.
  • Learn how to stop driving your man away from you when you think you are showing him love.
  • What he really means when he get angry with you.
  • How to turn off his anger quickly and smoothly so as to dissolve the tension.
  • Learn how to re-ignite or ignite any man’s desire.
Plus inside relationship rare tips that you have never heard, including:
  • The water fall effect –  that will reveal all the hidden feelings that men usually go through.
  • The 4 key need of every man that are not been met right now. One thing that a woman does that completely turn a man off. How to turn around and make your man love you completely.
  • Easy way to spark the heat and passion in your relationship. The top 5 things that you might be doing without realizing that you are turning your man off.
Addict Him Other Bonuses
  • Reflective attractive bonus guide
  • Human lie detector bonus
  • The cheating neutralizer – learn how to make your man never cheat again on you. Learn how to address the deep that make a man cheat.

Is Addict Him By Mirabelle Summers, Legit or Scam?

If you have been experiencing problems with men, you get dumped by every man or you just cannot get the right kind of man to love you. I would highly recommend you to go through the sale video or get yourself a copy of Addict Him to You.

Learn the reason why men behave they way they do, what they want and what you can really do to win a man’s heart fully. Addict Him to You is an interesting and a powerful system that can really work on anyone who is serious about getting the right man.

You are not only learning how to make a man love you but you also learn to how to handle stress and what you need to do on your part. For more tips check out this video.

What is Pancreatitis

PancreasPancreatitis is the inflammation of a pancreas. A pancreas is a important organ found deep inside behind the stomach and attached by ducts to both small intestines and gall bladder.

Its primary purpose it to secrete enzymes that help in digestion and to produce insulin that regulate the blood glucose levels.

Although it is not well known the mechanism that leads to pancreatitis. However, it is believed that pancreatitis can develop from any condition that lead to obstruction of the pancreas, pancreatic duct, cystic duct and common bile duct.

Once there is an obstruction, the pancreatic enzyme get trapped inside the pancreas and together with the bile, they initiate an inflammation process, attacking the pancreas (auto-digestion).

Risk Factors of Pancreatitis

  • Penetrating peptic ulcers
  • Alcoholism
  • Use of contraceptive pills
  • Neurological problems
  • Kidney failure
  • People who had previous history of kidney transplant.
  • Abdominal defects
  • Biliary disease
  • High cholesterol
  • Thyroid problem
  • Surgical injuries or trauma

Types of Pancreatitis

There are two different types of pancreatitis: Acute and Chronic

Acute Pancreatitis

Acute Pancreatitis occurs suddenly and can range from mild to several, fatal inflammation that does not respond to any treatment. In mild cases, the inflammation is usually confined within the pancreas and characterized by edema with minimal organ dysfunction.

The inflammation usually heals within 6 months and rarely causes any other complication.

However, severe inflammation can lead to bleeding (pancreatic enzymes damage the local blood vessels), cysts formation and circulatory problems, leading to kidney failure, pulmonary problems or even shock.

Chronic Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is usually diagnosed after an episode of acute pancreatitis or when 80% – 90% of pancreas has already been destroyed.

It more common in men between the ages of 40 – 45 years with history of alcoholism or women between the ages of 50 – 55 with previous history of suffering from a gallstone disease.

Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatitis

Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis may include;

1. Abdominal pain – felt at the middle area (epigastrium region), below the sternum and radiates to the back. Pain mostly occurs after eating a heavy meal, a fatty meal, drinking alcohol or when lying on the back. It is not relieved by taking antacid.

However, it may be temporary relieved by a knee-chest position (a position in which a person rests on the knees and upper part of the chest). It may also be followed by an abdominal distention.

2. Malnutrition due to poor food absorption rate (usually chronic cases)
3. Fatty stool (steartorrhea)
4. Nausea and vomiting
5. Fever
6. Decreased bowel sound
7. Jaundice and itchiness
8. Diabetes due to destruction of islet and beta cells

Severe Pancreatitis

1. Bleeding leading to discoloration of the abdomen and peri-umbilical area (Cullen’s sign)
2. Hypovolemic shock

Pancreatitis Diagnosis
The diagnosis of pancreatitis is based on the presenting symptoms and presence of any known risk factor. Tests performed to diagnose pancreatitis may include;

  • Pancreatic Function Test – to measure the level of amylase and lipase. In acute cases, it is usually increased 3 times the normal amount within the first 24 hours.
  • Urinary amylase – used to measure the enzymes levels in urine.
  • Blood test – increased white blood cells due to infection.
  • X-ray to study the abdomen and chest.
  • Ultrasound to produce images of the pancreas.
  • CT scans to produce images of the damaged pancreas part.
  • ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) used to rule out pancreatitis caused by gallstone.

Pancreatitis Treatment

Pancreatitis treatment is directed towards preventing possible complications and relieving symptoms. Acute pancreatitis is usually treated with intravenous fluid and medications to relieve pain.

In some cases, it may require the patient to be put under intensive care unit for close monitoring and to prevent development of serious complication.

Respiratory care and monitoring is also maintained to prevent possible hypoxemia (low oxygen levels inside the blood). Some patient may require supplemental oxygen or intubation using a mechanical ventilator.

Other way to treat pancreatitis include;

  • Biliary drainage – to drain bile and establish a pancreatic drainage.
  • Surgical intervention – to relieve pain, establish a drainage, resect or remove a necrotic (dead) part of the pancreas. A small incision about 5- 10 millimeter is usually made into the abdomen. The surgeon or the doctor is then guided by a laparoscope to produce images of the pancreas into the monitor.
  • Patients are also advised to stop alcohol consumption and other medications that can lead to acute pancreatitis. The doctor also discusses about follow-ups visits to determine whether the pancreatitis is resolving and to assess other problems that may be arising from the inflammation.

How to Prevent Pancreatitis

Though the cause of pancreatitis is different on each individual. There are various measures that you can take to minimize the risk of acquiring pancreatitis, such as;

  • Avoiding alcohol abuse
  • Eating low fat diet to prevent increase in cholesterol.
  • Use medications as directed by your doctor and avoiding over the counter medications or self medication.
  • Consult medical help as soon as possible whenever you feel unwell.
  • Follow the doctor’s advice and maintain all the follow up schedules as indicated by your physician.
  • If you cannot stop drinking alcohol, talk to your doctor or a health care provider about it.

What is Labyrinthitis?

Labyrinthitis is an inflammation or swelling of the inner ear. The most common cause of Labyrinthitis is the viruses. However, it can also occurs as a complication from a bacteria infection such as Otitis Media, when the bacteria spreads from the middle ear to the inner ear.

Labyrinthitis Causes and Risk Facts

The following are causes and risk factors that increases your chances of acquiring Labyrinthitis;
  • Infection of the middle ear (Otitis Media).
  • Mumps and rubella viral infections
  • Upper respiratory tract viral infections 
  • Herpes Varicella Zoster Virus infection (Ramsay Hunt Syndrome) – a disorder that is characterized by pain and paralysis of the facial nerves.
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Allergies
  • Stress and smoking
  • Medications – Aspirin 

Labyrinthitis Symptoms

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dizziness 
  • Vertigo – lack of balance and a sensation as if you are moving or spinning around. 
  • Ringing (tinnitus) or hearing some voices inside your ears. 
  • Temporary hearing loss that may start with one ear. 
Labyrinthitis Complications 
Possible complications associated with Labyrinthitis include; 
  • Permanent loss of hearing 
  • Head injury due to failing during a vertigo attack.
Labyrinthitis Diagnostics 
  • Physical examination and patient history – The doctor check your ears and ask you questions about the symptoms that you are experiencing. 
  • Neurological examination may also be performed to rule out other possible causes. 
  • Balance test – posturography 
  • Hearing tests – audiometry  
  • CT scan and MRI 
  • Brain function tests like electroencephalogram or EEG may also be performed. 
  • Caloric stimulation – the nerves of the inner ear are irrigated with warm or cold to access the degree of the ear damage or involvement of the brainstem.

Labyrinthitis Treatment

Treatment of Labyrinthitis involves use of antibiotics if the infection is caused by a bacteria. Labyrinthitis resulting from a viral infection is treated based on the symptoms that you are experiencing.

In some cases, Labyrinthitis does not require any treatment and usually heals by its own after a few weeks. Other medications that are used to treat other symptoms may include;

  • Medications to stop vomiting 
  • Antihistamines to treat allergies  
  • Fluid replacement to prevent dehydration 
  • Medications to relieve dizziness episodes 
Labyrinthitis Prevention

There is no way you can protect yourself from getting Labyrinthitis. However, limiting your movement, resting during the period of attacks, avoiding triggers like bright right and slowly moving from sitting to standing position may prevent your from getting injured or symptoms becoming worse.

What is Hypothyroidism?

Thyroid glands

Hypothyroidism results from hyposecretion of thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) by the thyroid glands. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto, an autoimmune disorder in which the body starts attacking its own thyroid glands.

Other possible causes and risk factors of hypothyroidism are;

  • Individuals with previous history of hyperthyroidism whose thyroid glands have been removed (thyroidectomy).

  • Individuals with previous history of hyperthyroidism who have been treated with radioiodine or anti-thyroid drugs.

  • Individuals who previously suffered from neck or head cancer and underwent a radiation therapy.

  • Advancing age which can lead to atrophy of the thyroid gland.

  • Gender – more common in female aged between 30 and 60 years.

  • Medications, such as lithium and iodine compounds.

  • Lack of adequate iodine in the diet.
  • Congenital or present at the time of birth (cretinism).

Hypothyroidism Symptoms

Early signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism may include;

  • Extreme fatigue
  • Weak and brittle nails
  • Dry skin
  • Numbness and tingling of the fingers
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual abnormalities – heavier menstrual flow.
  • Hoarseness

Late Symptoms of Hypothyroidism

  • Lower than normal body temperature and pulse rate.
  • Weight gain without increase of food intake.
  • The skin become thickened
  • Hair thinning and hair fall
  • Cold intolerance (individuals always complain of feeling cold).
  • Slowed speech
  • Increased irritability
  • Decreased taste and smell

Hypothyroidism Complications

If hypothyroidism is left untreated, it can led to very low thyroid hormones in the blood, a condition known as Myxedema Coma. Myxedema Coma may be precipitated by severe cold, opiods analgesics, sudden withdrawal of thyroid medications and an acute illness or an infection. 

Myxedema Coma Signs and Symptoms

  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Low body temperature
  • Low sodium level in the blood
  • Low blood glucose
  • Slowed breathing, leading to high level of carbondioxide in the blood.
  • Low oxygen levels in the tissue.

Other complications that can result from hypothyroidism include;

  • Heart diseases – coronary artery disease, increased cholesterol levels.
  • Heart attack – in severe cases of hypothyroidism (myxedema coma).
  • Decreased libido
  • Birth defects or giving birth to a child with defects.
  • Dementia- characterized by cognitive and personality changes.
  • Decreased breathing while asleep.
  • Respiratory muscle weakness and pleural effusion.

Hypothyroidism Diagnostic Tests

Physical Examination – The doctor palpitate the thyroid gland for size and other abnormalities. The thyroid gland may be normal, decreased or increased. Doctor also examine the nails, hair, skin and face for any abnormalities. 

Serum or Blood Tests –  to measure the blood levels of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormones), T3 and T4.

Other tests that may be performed include; measurement of cholesterol levels, CBC (complete blood count), measurements of electrolytes like sodium and kidney function tests.  

Hypothyroidism Treatment

The major goal of hypothyroidism treatment is to replace the missing thyroid hormone in order to restore back a normal metabolism state. A synthetic thyroid medication (levothyroxine) is usually prescribed, based on the level of TSH hormone in the blood.

Your doctor will prescribe a specific dose and your TSH levels will be monitored, regularly until when the blood hormones levels will go back to normal. Once the hormone levels have stabilized, you will still continue taking your medications as prescribed by your doctor.

However, your doctor will now schedule for a check up every six months or every after one year. Most patients suffering from hypothyroidism will require a lifetime treatment.

Hypothyroidism Prevention

There is no known ways to prevent hypothyroidism. However, there are several measures that you can take to protect your child and to avoid developing complications;

  • Make sure your newborn is screened for congenital hypothyroidism after birth.

  • Take your thyroid medications as prescribed by your doctor.

  • Do not stop taking your thyroid medication even if you are feeling well.

  • If you are taking any other medications, inform your doctor.

  • Seek your doctor’s help if you are thinking of changing your thyroid medication brand.

  • Consult your doctor before taking any supplements like iron, multivitamins, calcium etc.

  • Keep yourself warm if you feel cold.

  • Avoid exposing yourself to cold weather until your thyroid hormone levels have stabilized.

  • Avoid situation that can lead to infection.

  • Talk to your dietitian about the right diet that will help you to lose weight and prevent constipation.

  • Seek urgent medical help if you are experiencing signs and symptoms of thyroid medication overdose, such as, feeling your heart beating (palpitation), nervousness, sweating, weight loss, restlessness. If thyroid symptoms are becoming worse or your condition is not improving. If you are experiencing chest pain, difficulty breathing or dizziness.

What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid gland disorder resulting from over secretion of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4). Thyroid glands are the butterfly shaped glands that are located on the front lower neck.

Their main function is to produce hormones that play an important role in maintaining the overall function of the body, such as energy level, body warmth, muscles and other important functions. 

Hyperthyroidism result from any condition that affects the thyroid gland, leading to over production of T4 hormones, such as a thyroid tumor, graves disease (an autoimmune disorder where the body keep on producing more thyroid hormones.

The level of thyroid hormone is usually regulated by another hormone known as TSH (thyroid stimulating hormones) that is produced by pituitary glands. When there is an increased amount of T4 hormones in the blood, the pituitary gland try to compensate by decreasing the amount of TSH it produces. 

Hyperthyroidism Signs and Symptoms

  • Losing weight despite having a good appetite.
  • Increasing blood pressure
  • Irritability
  • Increased heat intolerance
  • Enlarged thyroid glands (goiter)
  • Thinning of the hair
  • Increased pulse rate
  • Tremors and nervousness
  • Bulging eyes (exophthalmos) – most common in graves disease.

If hyperthyroidism is not controlled, it can leads to a thyroid storm. A thyroid storm can be triggered by several factors such as, a surgical procedure, during intense period of stress, radioactive therapy, heart attack or overdose of thyroid synthetic hormones.

Thyroid Storm Signs and Symptoms

  • Increased systolic blood pressure (systolic pressure).

  • Increased pulse rate

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Diarrhea

  • Muscle weakness

Hyperthyroidism Diagnostic Tests

The following are different tests that can be used to diagnose hyperthyroidism:

TSH Serum Test

Serum measurement of TSH, T3 and T4 – expected findings – increased T3 and T4, decreased TSH. Individuals with milder cases of hyperthyroidism may have increased level of T3, normal T4 and decreased TSH. For subclinical cases of hyperthyroidism, they may have normal T3 and T4 but decreased TSH.

Antibody tests – Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibody and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI).

Autoantibody Titers Tests

Graves disease – expected findings – significantly increased anti-TPO and TSI.  Toxic multi-nodular enlargement (goiter) and Toxic Adenoma (thyroid benign tumor) – Anti-TPO may be absent or low. Individuals with active hyperthyroidism may also have mild levels of anti-TPO.

Scintigraphy – a thyroid test that involves taking an oral solution to produces structural images of the thyroid gland in order to determine the size, function and other thyroid gland abnormalities.

Hyperthyroidism Treatment and Management

The management of hyperthyroidism is directed towards reducing the hyperactivity of the thyroid glands in order to relieve various symptoms. Medical management may include;

Antithyroid Medications – used for a long time management of hyperthyroidism in children, pregnant women and adults waiting for a radioactive treatment.

Medications to control increased pulse rate (tachycardia) and to decrease palpitation, such as propranolol and beta blockers.

Radioactive Iodine Treatment – hyperthyroidism treatment of choice for adults and non pregnant women.  Radioactive iodine works by destroying the thyroid gland. However, it is not given to individuals with severe cases of ophthalmopathy. Surgery may performed for severe cases of ophthalmopathy (orbital decompression). Other way to manage ophthalmopathy is through  radiation therapy.

Removal of thyroid gland (thyroidectomy) - for severe cases of hyperthyroidism that do not respond to other therapies.

Other non pharmaceutical management of hyperthyroidism include;

  • Increasing fluid intake to prevent dehydration.

  • Monitoring of the vital signs.

  • Diet high in calories and protein.

  • Frequent small meals.

  • Providing a cool, quiet environment for the patient. 

What is Hydramnios or Polyhydramnios?

Excessive Amniotic Fluid

Hydramnios also known as Polyhydramnios is condition where there is excessive amount of amniotic fluid during pregnancy. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that cushions and protect the baby while in the mother’s womb.

In normal pregnancy, amniotic fluid is usually between 500 mL to 1000 mL at the term. In hydramnios, the amniotic fluid increases to more than 2,000 mL.

Causes of Hydramnios

Amniotic fluid is consistently produced by cells found on the amniotic membrane. Most of it is then swallowed by the baby while the others is absorbed into the fetus blood stream and across the placenta.

In hydramnios, it is believed that the fetus does not swallow or absorb the required amount of amniotic fluid, leading to excessive amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus. Hydramnios has also been linked to excessive production of urine by the fetus of diabetic mothers.

Signs and Symptoms of Hydramnios

  • Rapid enlargement of the abdomen.
  • The doctor may not be able to listen to the heart of the fetus due to increased amount of fluid sorrounding the fetus.
  • Difficult breathing due to expanding uterus that presses on the diaphragm.
  • Swelling or abdominal bloating.
  • Increased weight gain.
  • Abdominal pain due to stretching caused by the increasing belly.
  • Hemorroids and lower extremities varicosities due to poor venous circulation from the extreme pressure.

Hydramnios Complications

Mild case of hydramnios does not cause much problem or discomfort and it may settles by its own after sometimes. However, severe cases of hydramnios need urgent medical attention since it may be due to a fetal brain defect or an intestinal obstruction. Other complications that may result from hydramnios include;

  • Fetal malpresentation – additional fluid makes it easy for the baby to move around.
  • Premature rupture of the membrane due to increased pressure.
  • Infection
  • Cord prolapse
  • Preterm birth
Hydramnios Treatment and Management
In severe cases, you may need to be admitted to the hospital for further evaluation. The doctor may put you under bed rest to help in improving circulation and to minimize cervical pressure which can lead to a pre term birth.

  • Your health care provider assess your vital signs and examine your legs for swellings.
  • If preterm labor has already began, you may be given medication to halt it.
  • Your doctor may remove some amniotic fluid but this is only a temporary relieve since amniotic fluid is consistently produced.
  • After your baby is born, he or she is evaluated for possible problems which may have caused hydramnios.

Psoriasis Disease Overview

Psoriasis is one of the most common type of skin disorder, affecting almost 2% of the population. The cause of psoriasis is unknown but it is believed to have a hereditary connection. Current studies suggest psoriasis as an autoimmune disorder, where the immune system attacks its own body cells.

In normal healthy skin, cells are produced every after 26 to 28 days.  In psoriasis the skin cells are produced at a very fast rate, usually within 3 to 4 days.

When this happens, the newly formed cells moves faster to the skin surface as the dead cells build up on the skin surface forming up flaky scales. This rapid proliferation process affects the whole process of skin layer formation. 

Psoriasis Risk Factors

The following are some of the risks factors that can worsen the condition or trigger an onset of an attack; 

  • Emotional stress and anxiety
  • Hormonal changes
  • Very dry skin
  • Skin trauma or injuries
  • Some medications, such as some anti-hypertensive drugs and anti-malaria medications.
  • Exposure to excessive sunlight
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol.
  • People with weakened immunity, such as AIDs patients.

Psoriasis Symptoms

Psoriasis symptoms may disappear for sometimes to re-appear once again later on in life. The main symptom are lesions that appear red, flaky patches covered with scales. 

If the scales are scrapped, they expose a dark red skin that tend to bleed. Psoriasis lesions are commonly found on the scalp, elbows, lower back, knees and on the genitals.

In about a quarter of the patients suffering from psoriasis, discoloration, crumbling of the nail edges and separation of the nails plate is also present.

Other symptoms may include, palms and soles lesions, (palmar pustular psoriasis) genital sores in males and dandruff on the scalp.

Psoriasis Complications

Possible complications associated with psoriasis include;

  • Arthritis of multiple joints occurs in about 5% of individuals suffering from psoriasis.

  • Erythrodermic psoriasis – the infection spread to the whole body surface.

Psoriasis Diagnostics Tests

The confirmation of psoriasis diagnosis is usually made by looking at the presenting symptoms, the plaque-type skin lesions. The doctor or the nurse inspects your skin for the lesions. Your family history is also taken to identify possible hereditary connections.

Other tests that may be performed include; a biopsy test, where a sample of the affected tissue is taken for further analysis.

Psoriasis Treatment and Management

There is no cure of psoriasis and any treatment given is directed towards slowing down the rapid growth of the skin cells and to help in healing the skin lesions. The following are the different types of treatments that are used to manage psoriasis;

Topical Agents – Topical medications are used to slow down the rapid growth of the skins cells, without affecting other tissues. 

They come in different forms and may include; lotions, pastes, ointment, creams or shampoos. In some cases, topical steroids may also be prescribed to minimize the inflammatory process.

Intralesional Medications – These are steroid medications that are directly injected into the skin psoriasis patches that do not react to other treatment. Such as Aristocort, Kenalog-10 and Trymex.

Systemic Medications - Only used in treating severe cases of psoriasis that do not respond to other treatment due to their serious withdrawal effects (side effects). 

Photochemotherapy – a process where psoralen medications and ultraviolet light are combined in treating psoriasis. In photochemotherapy, you receive photosensitizing medication and at the same time, you get exposed to the ultraviolet light.

The therapy is believed to work by slowing down the whole process of rapid reproduction of the skin cells.

Psoriasis Prevention

There is no known way to prevent yourself from acquiring psoriasis. However, there are a few things that you can do to protect your skin or to prevent triggering an onset; 

  • Daily baths using oils, aveeno oilated oatmeal or a coal tar preparation, together with a soft brush may help in removing the scales.

  • Apply any topical medication as prescribed to help in softening the thickened skin.

  • Avoid scrubbing your skin too hard to avoid irritating it.

  • Avoid situations or stress that can trigger an attack.

  • Maintain a regular skin care routine.

  • Keep your skin clean and well moisturized.

  • Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight.

What is Nephrotic Syndrome?

Nephrotic syndrome is not a specific kidney disease but a disorder that results into various symptoms. It can result from any disorder or disease that affects kidney glomeruli; the small blood vessels found at the end of the kidneys tubules that filter waste products from the blood.

When the glomeruli capillary membrane is damaged it allows excessive protein to leave the body, leading to decreased protein (albumin) inside the blood.

Albumin plays an important role in maintaining fluid balance inside the body. Nephrotic syndrome is more common in children but it also occurs in adult.

Causes of Nephrotic Syndrome

Any disease or condition that destroys or damages the glomerular capillary membrane. Such as;

Chronic glomerulonephritis – a long term disease of the kidney that results into inflammation of kidney glomeruli.

Other conditions that can lead to Nephrotic Syndrome are; Diabetes Mellitus, Amyloidosis of the kidneys (disease in which abnormal protein known amyloid accumulates in body kidneys), Lupus Erythematous, Multiple Myeloma and certain medications. 

Symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome 

  • Edema – a major symptoms of Nephrotic Syndrome. The edema may occurs around the eyes (peri-orbital edema), sacrum, ankles, hands and on the abdomen (ascites).
  • Irritability
  • Headache and malaise
  • Foamy urine due to excessive protein.
  • Weight gain due to excessive fluid inside the body.


Possible complications associated with Nephrotic Syndrome include;

  • Obstruction of the renal vein by a clot (thromboembolism) – Excessive loss of protein can lead to loss of important proteins that help in clotting.
  • Pulmonary embolism – a clot may move from the vein and travel through the blood to the lungs.
  • Acute renal failure due to decreased blood flowing into the kidneys.

  • Worsening of atherosclerosis – due to increased release of cholesterol in the blood by the liver.

  • Weight loss and malnutrition due to excessive loss of protein. It may be masked by ascites (body swellings).

  • Increased risk of infection – People with Nephrotic syndrome are more prone to getting infections than healthy people.

Nephrotic Syndrome Diagnostics Tests

  • Urinalysis – Protein (albumin) of more than 3.5g/day is the hallmark of diagnosing Nephrotic Syndrome. Other urine findings include; increased white blood cells, increased epithelial casts and granular.

  • Needle biopsy – a sample tissue of the kidney is removed by use of a small needle for further analysis.

  • Protein electrophoresis and immuno-electrophoresis – tests to categorize the type of protein found on the urine.

  • Blood tests may also be performed to measure the amount of albumin in the blood.

Nephrotic Syndrome Treatment and Management

Treatment of Nephrotic syndrome is directed towards preserving the renal functions and preventing other possible complications. Treatment involves, treating of the underlying conditions, such as hypertension.

Medications used in treating Nephrotic Syndrome include;

  • Diuretics – usually given to individuals with severe edema.

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, together with a loop diuretics to reduce blood pressure and amount of protein released in the urine. This kind of treatment is not given for severe cases of edema, since it usually takes between 4 to 6 weeks to be effective.

  • Antineoplastic agents – drugs that are used to inhibit and prevent the development of cancer.

  • Corticosteroids – usually used for kidney inflammation diseases, such as membranous nephropathy or other diseases that are hard to treat or to treat relapses.

  • Other management involves diet modification, such as low sodium diet with liberal potassium for individuals with normal potassium.

What is Hyperemesis Gravidarum?

Hyperemesis gravidarum (pernicious vomiting) is a complication of pregnancy that results into excessive vomiting and nausea, past 12th week of pregnancy. Sometimes, the condition is so severe that it leads to dehydration and significant weight loss.

Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Causes of hyperemesis gravidarum is not known but it has been associated with increased thyroid functions that stimulates the production of  hormones human chorionic gonadotropic and estrogen. It is has also been linked to helicobacter pylori (a bacteria that causes stomach ulcers).

Other associated causes of hyperemesis gravidarum include; lack of vitamin B6, obstructive bowel diseases, pancreatitis and trophoblastic disorder (hydatidiform mole).

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Risk Factors

Some risk factors associated with having hyperemesis gravidarum include;

  • A women with previous history of hyperemesis gravidarum.

  • First time mothers

  • Trophoblastic disorder (hydatidiform mole).

  • Obesity and overweight pregnant mothers.

  • Multiple pregnancy (women carrying more than one baby).

Symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum include;

  • Excessive vomiting – more than three or four times in one day.

  • Significant weight loss of more than 10 pounds or 5 kgs.

  • Signs and symptoms of dehydration (dry skin, thirst, poor skin turgor and sunken eyeball).

  • Feeling of lightheadedness and dizziness.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Complications

If left untreated, hyperemesis gravidarum can lead to intrauterine growth retardation (the fetus does not grow anymore) and premature birth of the fetus. 

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Diagnostic Test

Hyperemesis gravidarum is diagnosed through; history taking. The doctor may ask you questions like, how many times you are experiencing vomiting in a day, how much, what time of the day is nausea happening, what amount of food are you taking, among others.

In additional to history taking, other tests that may be performed include;

  • Physical examination

  • Laboratory tests to measure the level of electrolytes (sodium, potassium).

  • Urinalysis to detect ketones.

Hyperemesis Gravidarium Treatment

If you are suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum, you will need to be hospitalized for at least one day for closer monitoring. During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, no food or drinks are allowed to be taken by mouth.

Other treatments may include;

  • Intravenous fluid replacement – IV fluid replacement is given to increase hydration and to prevent dehydration.

  • Medication to control vomiting, such as metoclopramide (Reglan), promethazine may also be given.

  • Total parental nutrition may be necessarily for severe cases of hyperemesis gravidarum to replace the nutrients lost.

  • Potassium supplements and vitamin B6 supplements may be administered.

If there is no more vomiting after 24 hours, you may be discharged from hospital, usually with a referral for home care. The doctor will advise you on what kind of food you should take, how much and how often should be taken, usually small frequent meals.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum Prevention

There are no known ways that can completely prevent hyperemesis gravidarum. However, taking the following measures may help; 

  • Serve small portion of food on a plate and eat small frequent meals.

  • If you are serving a pregnant woman, present the food in an attractive manner.

  • Serve food hot that are meant to be served hot and serve food cold that are meant to be served cold.

  • Do not talk about food in front of a pregnant woman suffering from hyperemesis gravidarum or talk about what you are preparing.

  • If you are taking care of a pregnant woman, do not urge her to take more food. This may make her feel guilty and exaggerates her condition.

  • Limit exposure to food odors.

What is Legionnaires’ Disease

Legionnaires’ disease is a multi-system illness that is caused by Legionella bacteria (a gram-negative bacteria known as legionella pneumophila).

The bacteria spread through the environment from man-made and naturally occurring water bodies, such as lakes, rivers, hot springs. It then enters the respiratory tract (lungs) through droplets (small drop of a liquid). Legionnaires’ disease is not transmitted from one person to another.

Legionnaires’ Disease Risk Factors

The following are risk factors that increases the chances of catching legionnaires’ disease;

  • People suffering from diseases that weakens the immune system. Such as AIDS, cancer, end renal diseases. 

  • More common in people aged 50 years and above.

  • Smokers

  • Individuals suffering from diabetes.

  • Excessive use of alcohol (alcohol abuse).

  • Suffering from other pulmonary diseases.

Legionnaires’ Disease Symptoms

Legionnaires’ disease usually affects the lungs (the primary organ of infection). However, it can also affects other organs.

The incubation period of the Legionnaire’s disease is between 2 to 10 days. On average, symptoms start appearing within 6 day after you have been exposed to legionella bacteria.

Initially, Legionnaires’ symptoms are similar to flu like and may include;

  • Headache

  • Body malaise

  • Muscles pain and aches

  • Dry cough

As the disease progresses, symptoms becomes more severe and may include;

  • High grade fever of up to 39.4°C (103°F)

  • Difficulty in breathing

  • Shortness of breath

  • Productive cough

  • Chest pain

  • Diarrhea

  • Multiple organ failure

Legionnaires’ Disease Diagnostic Tests
Tests used to diagnose Legionnaires’ disease include;

  • History taking

  • Physical examination

  • X- ray

  • Blood tests

  • Culture and other tests used to detect antigen or antibody (urinary antigen). Legionnaire’s disease is usually diagnosed after multiple testing since none of the single test is considered completely accurate.

Legionnaires’ Disease Treatment and Management

Since Legionnaires’ disease is a bacterial infection, various types of macrolides antibiotics are used to treat it. The most commonly type of macrolides antibiotics used is Azithromycin (Zithromax).

Prevention of Legionnaires’ Disease

  • The best way to prevent Legionnaires’ disease it is to make sure we maintain areas that support the growth of bacteria clean, such as cooling towers.

  • Maintaining domestic water heaters at the required temperature.

  • Removing stagnant water or avoiding situations that can lead to accumulation of stagnant water.

  • Taking care of yourself to avoid getting exposed to Legionnaires’ bacteria.